Peru, the largest Andean country, extends from north to south over 18 parallels (from the equator to 18 ° south latitude) or over 2,000 km. From the coast of the Pacific Ocean in the west, Peru stretches about 1,200 km across the more than 6,000 m high Andean ridge to the Amazon lowlands in the east. The highest mountain in Peru is the 6,768 m high Huascaran.
In the sea, directly in front of the coast, in whose hinterland the Huascaran rises, runs the up to 6,369 m deep Perugraben. The height difference between the highest peak of the Peruvian Andes and the deepest point of the deep sea trench is more than 13,000 m. Such enormous height differences in a small area are always an indication of strong movements within the earth’s crust in geologically recent times. This is also evidenced by the frequent earthquakes in this region. Lava can penetrate through the crevices that tear in the underground and build high volcanic mountains. In addition to the many extinct volcanoes, there are four volcanoes in Peru that are still active today.
Geologists have determined that immediately before the excavation of the rock tunnels in the Tertiary period, there must have been a longer period during which the fold mountains were leveled. Remnants of the old land surface have been preserved, especially in the wider area around Lake Titicaca.
According to the landforms, Peru can be divided into three large natural areas : the desert-like lowland on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, up to 150 km wide in the north, the mountainous country of the Andes with two almost northwest / southeast running mountain ranges and finally the densely forested Amazon lowland in the east.
The coastal lowlands and the Andean region take up only about two-fifths of the country’s area, but, as in the other Andean countries, by far the largest part of the population lives here.
Peru – money
Local currency: 1 Nuevo Sol equals 100 Céntimos
Currency abbreviation: S /., PEN
Banknotes are in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 S /. issued, coins to the value of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimos as well as 1, 2 and 5 S /.
The 200 S /. Banknote and the 1, 5 and 20 centimos coins are hardly in circulation.
Currency Exchange: in Peruvian cities the US dollar is accepted as a means of payment almost everywhere, in tourist regions it is increasingly possible to pay with euro banknotes. You should therefore have enough banknotes in US dollars (preferably small bills) or euros with you. Apart from the US dollar or euro, foreign currencies are difficult to exchange in Lima, hardly outside the capital, and there are higher fees for such transactions. Officially, only the Banco de la Nación is allowed to change money, many exchange offices (Casas de Cambios) and several large hotels, however, are designated as authorized branches of the National Bank. Exchange offices are the fastest way to change money.
Credit Cards: Visa is the most widely accepted credit card in Peru and there is a 7 percent charge on all credit card payments. In Lima, mainly better hotels, restaurants and car rental companies accept credit cards, outside of Lima credit cards are less accepted.
There are ATMs in all major cities and tourist places. At ATMs that are connected to the Cirrus and Maestro systems, you can withdraw cash with credit cards (Visa, Mastercard and American Express) or ec / Maestro cards (PIN code required), sometimes you can choose between a payout Choose in Nuevo Sol or US Dollars. ec / Maestro cards are accepted by ATMs at Banco de Crédito and Interbank, among others. The fees vary depending on the bank, but withdrawing with an EC card is cheaper.
Travelers checks are rarely accepted (only from banks and upscale hotels), and exchange rates are slightly lower than for cash.
Foreign exchange regulations: No restrictions. However, when exchanging national currencies for foreign currencies, an exchange receipt must be presented.
Bank opening times: Mon – Fri 9 a.m. – 5 p.m. and Sat 9 a.m. – 1 p.m.
Due to the great north-south expansion, the Pacific coast and the height differences between the sea and the Andes, which are more than 6,000 m high, you will find very different climatic conditions in Peru.
According to Bridgat, the climate in Peru can be divided into two seasons – wet and dry – which can vary depending on the region. the temperature is most influenced by altitude: the higher you go, the cooler it gets.
The coastal region of Peru is transported through the Humboldt current cold Antarctic water, relatively cool for the latitude and year-round dry to very dry. Temperatures rise highest during the summer months (January to March), with hot and humid days of around 29 ° C and cool nights of just under 20 ° C. Winters are not too cold, but it is common cloudy.
In the interior of the country, the temperature drops considerably with less seasonal fluctuations – the maximum temperatures are around 21 ° C all year round. Winter nights, especially at higher altitudes, can get cold. The rainy season is between December and May.
The climate in the Andes depends on the altitude. Temperatures above 0 ° C are seldom reached from an altitude of 5,000 m.