General information about Oman
The official name is the Sultanate of Oman. Located in the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Its small area is located in the north of the Musandam Peninsula, on the coast of the Strait of Hormuz, which is cut off from the main part of the country by the territory belonging to the UAE. The area is 309.5 thousand km2, the population is 2478 thousand people. (2001). The official language is Arabic. The capital is Muscat (400 thousand people, 2000). Public holiday – Birthday of Sultan Qaboos November 18-19 (celebrated since accession to the throne in 1970). The monetary unit is the Omani rial (equal to 1000 bais).
Member of the UN (since 1971), Arab League (since 1971), OIC (since 1972), Non-Aligned Movement (since 1973), GCC (since 1981), WTO (since 2000), etc.
Geography of Oman
Located between 51°50′ and 59°40′ east longitude and 16°40′ and 26°20′ north latitude. It is washed from the northeast by the Gulf of Oman, from the southeast by the Arabian Sea.
The coast of the bay is indented by shallow bays. The cities of Sohar, Es-Sib, Muscat, Al-Khabur, Sur are located on it. The southeast coast is slightly indented. There are three bays here – Masirah, Saukira and Kuria-Muriya. Masirah Island is the largest and most important island possession of the Sultanate from a military and strategic point of view.
Oman borders on the west and southwest with Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen, and by sea with Iran. Most of the surface is mountainous. There are 6 clearly defined geographic regions: the coast of Al-Battin, the Hajar mountains, inland Oman proper, middle Oman, Dhofar and Musandam. El Battyna is a narrow lowland, an important and ancient center of agricultural activity. The Hajar Mountains are a system-forming physical and geographical factor of Oman. In Jabal al-Akhdar, the height of the peaks reaches 3000 m (the highest point is Jabal el-Sham, 3353 m). Inner Oman centers around Jebel el-Akhdar. The limestone mountains here are cut by wadis – dry beds of temporary rivers, which perform an important function of water supply and provide communication with other areas and territories. Central Oman is located south of inland Oman in a barren expanse free of population. Dhofar occupies approximately 1/3 of the territory of Oman and consists of three parts: the Salal plain, which has fertile alluvial soils (almost 50×20 km in area), mountain ranges (Jebel Samhan – in the east, Jebel Kara – in the center, Jebel Qamar – in the west) and spread out behind a mountain range of a plateau bordering the desert. The Musandam Peninsula (Ras el-Jibal) is a mountainous country. Rocky peaks here are over 1500 m high. bordering the desert. The Musandam Peninsula (Ras el-Jibal) is a mountainous country. Rocky peaks here are over 1500 m high. bordering the desert. The Musandam Peninsula (Ras el-Jibal) is a mountainous country. Rocky peaks here are over 1500 m high.
Mineral resources are formed by oil reserves (700 million tons) and gas. There are industrial deposits of copper and iron ore, chromium, coal. Deposits of manganese, lead, gold and silver have been explored.
According to bridgat, Oman has an exceptionally hot summer (except for the Dhofar region, where the monsoon climate has established itself). All precipitation (25-100 mm per year) falls in winter and early summer. The climate is subtropical in the coastal zone, and sharply continental in the interior. On the coast in summer the temperature reaches +40°С, in the interior regions +50°С. Winter season (November-March) is mild +20-25°С.
There are no rivers or lakes. Precipitation falls in the form of rain and is partially discharged along the wadis into the Gulf of Oman and the sands of the Rub al-Khali desert.
Woody vegetation is found in the humid regions of the Omani mountains (tamarisk, acacia, plane tree). Acacias and a dragon tree grow in the savannah. Significant areas are occupied by desert grassy vegetation. El Battyna is occupied by cultivated vegetation (palm groves, gardens and fields).
Fauna: rodents, reptiles (Arabian cobra, horned viper), birds (eagles, kites, gulls, bustards, flamingos), ungulates (sand gazelle), predators (jackal, striped hyena, fox). There are arachnids (phalanges, scorpions, tarantulas).
The population of Oman
Annual population growth rates are high, averaging 5% in 1990-98. In the entire population of St. 72% are Omani citizens, the rest are foreign workers.
Birth rate 28.4‰, death rate 3.7‰; infant mortality 8.8 pers. per 1000 newborns (2001). The average life expectancy in 1995-2000 was 70.6 years (men 69.2 years, women 72). Urban population approx. 84.0%, rural – 16.0% (2000). 92% of children are covered by general secondary education.
Ethnically, the population is heterogeneous. The descendants of the Yemeni and Neji Arab tribes predominate, the rest are Balochs and Persians. There are many descendants of African slaves in coastal cities. Numerous people from India (baniya and khavaji). In connection with the “oil boom”, hundreds of thousands of workers from South Asia and the Middle East arrived in Oman. Languages: Arabic, English, Balochi, Urdu, Hindi.
The state religion is Islam: Muslims-Kharijites (Ibadi sect) – 53.5%; Sunnis (the largest non-Ibadi community) – 25%; a small community is made up of Shiites. Of the other religions are represented: Hindus, Christians. Ibadism has its main spiritual base in Oman, but is also widespread in Algeria, Tunisia, Pakistan, and Somalia.